Pseudomonas syringae influence on winter wheat yield
The last year research shows that pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae which cause leaf blight and basal glume blotch are spreading in Lithuania. The loss of grain yield because of P. syringae caused diseases might be from 5 to 50%. The decrease of grain yield depends on many factors, including environment conditions (especially temperature and humidity). The aim of the study is to identity how different strains and infection of Pseudomonas syringae influence winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield in Lithuania. In vitro five varieties of winter wheat (Dagmar, Janne, Edvins, Skagen and Artist) have been infected by cell suspensions of eight different P. syringae strains (1.0 × 106 KSVml–1) in different growth stages (BBCH 61, BBCH 63-65, BBCH 70- 71 and BBCH 75). The wheat has been sprayed by sterile distilled water in the control variant. Grain weight differences between the investigation variants have been estimated after wheat achieved full maturity (BBCH89). With reference to the analysis data of three statistical factors we can say that the P. syringae infection time did not have a significant influence on the grain weight (P = 0.1970), but the influence of the varieties and P. syringae strains was statistically significant (P = 0.0000). The interaction between different factors such as the infection time and varieties, the infection time and P. syringae strains as well as P. syringae strains has been statistically significant. The referential bacteria P. syringae pv. syringae (strain No. CFBP 4108 Van Hall 1902) and P. syringae pv. Atrofaciens (strain No. CFBP 3587 Mac Culloch 1920) reduced the grain weight mostly (P = 0.0000), respectively, 10.2 and 9.1% compared to the control.