Directions in the development of modern and promising antimicrobial agents
The use of antibiotics is becoming increasingly limited. This is mainly due to the development of resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and, over time, more and more bacteria will become resistant to antimicrobials. This problem inevitably leads to the conclusion that studies into alternative methods of combating pathogens, which are necessary to develop sufficiently reliable and effective therapies for bacterial infections, are indispensable. This review highlights some recent developments in conventional antibiotic and non-antibiotic treatment strategies. It has been shown that traditional antibacterial targets include derivatives of known antibiotic classes, new chemical classes with new targets, as well as unknown or undefined agents with unclear targets. Promising strategies for combating microbial pathogens have been identified, including new targets, namely, toxin secretion systems, biofilm formation, and adhesion mechanisms that affect quorum sensing of microbial populations. In addition, it is important to use new antimicrobial agents with other, non-antibiotic, mechanisms of action: phage and phage-derived peptides, microbiota-modulating therapies, and enhancing immune response.