Switchable hydrophilicity solvent-based hollow fibre liquid-liquid microextraction – headspace gas chromatography for determination of benzene and its derivatives in water samples

  • Vida Vičkačkaitė
  • Vasarė Viselgaitė
  • Vilius Poškus
Keywords: headspace gas chromatography, hollow fiber liquid-liquid microextraction, switchable hydrophilicity solvents, benzene derivatives


A novel, cost-effective, simple and environmentally friendly method was developed for separating, preconcentrating and quantifying volatile analytes. That approach utilised switchable hydrophilicity solvent-based hollow fiber liquid-liquid microextraction in combination with headspace gas chromatography. The extraction was carried out from 1 l of water solution. 100 μl of nonanoic acid, immobilised within a polypropylene capillary, was selected as an extraction solvent. After the extraction, the capillary with the extract was transferred to a headspace vial, and headspace gas chromatographic analysis was performed. To facilitate the transition of volatile analytes to the headspace for subsequent analysis, nonanoic acid was converted to hydrophilic nonanoate by adding a sodium hydroxide solution.

The effectiveness of the suggested strategy was demonstrated in the determination of benzene and its derivatives in water samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction and headspace gas chromatographic determination were investigated and optimised. Under the optimal conditions, the analytical characteristics of the proposed technique were determined.

Using this approach, the limits of quantification for all analytes were found to be below the maximum acceptable concentration.

Analytical Chemistry