Graphical biplot assessment of pre-sowing procedures on the seeds of Dracocephalum moldavica L. employing diverse nanoparticles

  • Naser Sabaghnia
  • Mohsen Janmohammadi
  • Saeed Yousefzadeh
Keywords: seed germination properties, nano-Fe oxide, nanosilicon dioxide


Dracocephalum moldavica L., the Moldavian dragonhead, has found its place in folk medicine and has been used to address kidney complaints. Pre-hydration methodologies were administered to dragonhead seeds utilising nano-silicon dioxide at three concentrations: Si1 0 mM as control, Si2 and Si3, 1 and 2 mM, respectively. Concurrently, treatments with nanoparticles of Fe in oxide form encompassed: Fe1 0 mM as control, Fe2 and Fe3, 1 and 2 mM, respectively. A range of parameters, including the germination percentage, weight (fresh and dry) and length of roots and shoots, seed residue dry weight, and root and shoot dry weights were meticulously gauged. The utilisation of the treatment-by-trait biplot facilitated the visualisation of interrelationships of traits and treatments, with the initial two principal components elucidating 80% of the observed variation. The majority of the traits are located in a specific sector of graph with Si2-Fe3 as the optimal pre-hydration treatment. The ideal treatment for eliciting elevated seed germination properties was detected as Si2-Fe3 (1 mM nano-silicon dioxide and 2 mM of Fe oxide nanoparticles) through the ideal entry biplot. Our findings strongly suggest that priming with silicon and Fe in form of nanoparticles holds the potential to expedite both germination and seedling growth in D. moldavica L. In summary, the text emphasises the potential benefits of nanoparticle technology in agriculture, underscores the importance of precise experimental optimisation, highlights the objectivity of the biplot, and suggests promising strategies for seed priming in the cultivation of the Moldavian dragonhead.