Most common vector-borne diseases in dogs in Europe: a review
The wide variety of infectious and parasitic disorders known as vector-borne diseases are spread by blood-feeding parasites such as ticks, fleas, lice, and mosquitoes. Anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and borreliosis are important for both animal welfare and their potential to spread to humans. In addition, several social and environmental factors, such as shifts in the planet temperature and ecosystems, an increase in animal and human mobility, and chemoresistance to insecticides and acaricides are constantly changing the epidemiological scenario of vector-borne diseases. When these arthropods feed on an infected animal, they pick up the disease-causing pathogens. When, subsequently, they feed on a healthy animal, they can transmit the pathogen to that animal through their saliva. Early detection and treatment of these diseases is critical to ensure the best possible outcomes for affected dogs. The aim of the article was to discuss the most common vector-borne diseases in dogs in Europe, looking at the prevalence of the diseases and the health risks for dogs. We attempted to summarise the latest literature on various aspects of the disease pathophysiology, epidemiology, advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic techniques, available treatments, and methods for prevention in dogs.