The effect of different fertilisers and planting patterns on the fatty acid profile of safflower oil
The soils of semi-arid regions have serious nutrient deficiencies, and it seems that the qualitative aspects of crops are strongly influenced by fertiliser management and planting patterns. The current experiment was carried out to evaluate the fatty acid composition of safflower oil under the application of different fertilisers (control, farmyard manure at 10 and 20 t ha–1, NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), nano Fe+Zn) and four different planting patterns (planting in-furrow or on-ridge with inter-row distances of 40 cm or 60 cm) in the semi-arid region of north-western Iran (Maragheh). Results showed that all oil compositions significantly responded to fertiliser treatments. Utilisation of farmyard manure (FYM) increased seed oil content, and the highest oil content was recorded in planting on-ridge, which was 18% higher than the control condition. The highest percentage of seed protein was obtained by application of NPK and planting on-ridge with wider inter-row distance. Evaluation of saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, myristic, lauric) showed that the application of high levels of FYM significantly increased these compositions. However, the effect of FYM20 application on main unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) was much more evident, and it increased iodine value. Taken together, the results of this study indicated a positive and significant effect of the application of high levels of FYM in on-ridge planting with wider row spacing on the qualitative and nutritional aspects of safflower oil.